FAQ &
How To Use

Frequently Asked Questions

What is so unique about the CleanWash™ bottle?

The CleanWash has a very unique (patent pending) design. It utilizes two valves: one for liquid and one for air to prevent backwash contamination, and minimizes bacteria colonization.

What is Chitosan?

Chitosan is an amazing molecule. What superfoods are to the nutrition world, chitosan is to the immune world! It is the second most abundant polysaccharide (complex sugar) on earth. Cellulose is the most abundant. We use a plant based chitosan product.It is completely natural, and biodegradable. It has known anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties (1,2). Why even have this: When applied (to wounds), chitosan effectively stops bleeding.(Using chitosan in the nose with ChitoRhino will not affect clotting in your body or affect any blood thinning agents you may be on.)

How is Chitosan Used?

Chitosan is used in pharmaceutical formulations and dietary supplements for weight loss, hyperlipidemia, and wound healing. It is also made into an edible film to protect food from spoilage (4). Also, Intense studies are underway by large pharmaceutical companies to use chitosan as a drug carrier for delivery via nasal sprays.

Why Use Chitosan in a Nasal and Sinus Rinse?

ChitoRhino is a nasal and sinus wash. As with any nasal and sinus wash, the solution has to be compatible with the nasal lining. ChitoRhino is a soothing, ph-balanced saline solution infused with chitosan. ChitoRhino™ is a combination of medically proven saline irrigation with the clinically proven benefits of chitosan.

What Happens When Chitosan is Placed on the Nasal Lining or Skin Surface?

Studies in the sinuses demonstrate that chitosan gel placed after sinus surgery reduces scarring (5,6). Chitosan gels have also been studied to treat burn wounds (7,8). Topical application enhances wound healing by stimulation of granulation tissue (normal healing tissue). Possible mechanisms of action include formation of a gel-like fibronectin matrix that facilitates inward epithelial cell migration and the formation of heparin-chitosan complexes that ultimately activates growth factors that bind to stabilized heparin (9).

Recent research has also demonstrated that chitosan can disrupt bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are a “glue” that mat bacteria and fungi together and make them very difficult to eliminate. Biofilms are thought to be a leading cause of chronic and recalcitrant (difficult to treat) sinusitis. Chitosan’s natural properties allow it to disrupt biofilms. This may have a significant impact on the treatment of sinusitis.

What Happens to Chitosan in the Body?

Chitosan has a known metabolic pathway. After entering the body any leftover chitosan is broken down by the normal enzymes in the body. Chitosan is digested by lysozyme, a human enzyme which is present in tears, saliva and mucus. It breaks down to glucosamine (a sugar which is already present in the body that helps lubricate joints) (10). In fact, many forms of glucosamine are derived from chitosan. Once ingested chitosan forms a positively charged gel matrix in stomach acid enabling it to bind bile acids and cholesterol (11).

What Medical Benefits Does Chitosan Offer?

Chitosan may lower bad cholesterol (LDL) (11,12). One small study in obese patients found that chitosan supplementation decreased weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglycerides (13). A systematic review of the published literature also concluded that chitosan reduced total cholesterol (14). Chitosan may increase total plasma antioxidant activity and lower indices of oxidative stress in humans (15,16).

What Are Some Other Facts About Chitosan?

Chitosan is used widely in medical bandages, diet aids and some cosmetics. It is an approved food ingredient and generally recommended as safe (GRAS) by the FDA.

What Are Some Other Uses of Chitosan?

Chitosan also has many commercial uses. It can be used in agriculture as a seed treatment to help plants fight off fungal infections. In winemaking it can be used as a fining agent to help prevent spoilage. Chitosan is commonly used as a water-filtering agent.

1 – Aziz MA. Antimicrobial properties of a chitosan dextran-based hydrogel for surgical use. – – Antimicrob Agents Chemother – 01-JAN-2012; 56(1): 280-7.

2 – Altiok D – J Mater. Physical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of chitosan films incorporated with thyme oil for potential wound healing applications. – Sci Mater Med – 01-JUL-2010; 21(7): 2227-36.

4 – Cagri A, Ustunol Z, Ryser ET. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings. J Food Prot. 2004 Apr;67(4):833-48.

5 – Athanasiadis T. Effects of a novel chitosan gel on mucosal wound healing following endoscopic sinus surgery in a sheep model of chronic rhinosinusitis. – – Laryngoscope – 01-JUN-2008; 118(6): 1088-94

6 – Medina JG. A chitosan-based sinus sealant for reduction of adhesion formation in rabbit and sheep models. – Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg – 01-AUG-2012; 147(2): 357-63

7 – Ribeiro MP. Development of a new chitosan hydrogel for wound dressing. – Ribeiro MP – Wound Repair Regen – 01-NOV-2009; 17(6): 817-24 .

8 – Alsarra IA. Chitosan topical gel formulation in the management of burn wounds. – Alsarra IA – Int J BiolMacromol – 1-JUL-2009; 45(1): 16-21.

9 – Stone CA, et al. Healing at skin graft donor sites dressed with chitosan. Br J PlastSurg2000;53:601-6.

10 – Aiba S. Studies on chitosan: Lysozymic hydrolysis of partially N-acetylated chitosans. Int J BiolMacromol. 1992 Aug;14(4):225-8.

11 – Maezaki Y, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of chitosan in adult males. Biosci Biotech Biochem1993;57:1439-44.

12 – Tai TS, et al. Effect of chitosan on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in type-two diabetic subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1703-4.

13 – Hernández-González SO, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, et al. Chitosan improves insulin sensitivity as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in obese subjects. Nutr Res. 2010 Jun;30(6):392-5.

14 – Baker WL, Tercius A, Anglade M, et al. A meta-analysis evaluating the impact of chitosan on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients. Ann NutrMetab. 2009; 55(4):368-74.

15 – Anraku M, Fujii T, Furutani N, et al. Antioxidant effects of a dietary supplement: reduction of indices of oxidative stress in normal subjects by water-soluble chitosan. Food ChemToxicol. 2009 Jan;47(1):104-9.

16 – Pittler MH, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of chitosan for body weight reduction. Eur J ClinNutr1999;53:379-81.